Paper Status Tracking
Contact us
[email protected]
Click here to send a message to me 3275638434
Paper Publishing WeChat


Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom


While there is no consensus on the number of domestic sex trafficking victims in India, the phenomenon is estimated to be widespread and the evidence of its impact on victims is devastating. This paper explored the narratives of 10 sex trafficked women from a major non-government organization in New Delhi. Qualitative methodology was adopted and data were collected through open-ended unstructured interviews. The victimological paradigm including the Lifestyle Risk Model (LRM) by Van der Hoven and Maree provided the framework to discuss the key issues related to sex trafficking. Psychological experiences such as being abused by husbands, and in some cases, victims’ own families; social conditions such as poverty and education; cultural practices such as vulnerability of women and marginalization; and lifestyle risk factors were observed throughout the stories of the victims. Furthermore, shame was found to be the core emotion in the stigmatization process. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.


Sex trafficking, prostitution, India, women, sexual abuse, shame

Cite this paper

Sociology Study, October 2016, Vol. 6, No. 10, 629-638


Brown, T. L. 2000. Sex Slaves: The Trafficking of Women in Asia. United Kingdom: Virago Press.

Browne, A. and D. Finkelhor. 1986. “Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Research.” Psychological Bulletin 99(1):66-77.

Feiring, C., L. Taska, and M. Lewis. 1996. “A Process Model for Understanding Adaptation to Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame in Defining Stigmatization.” Child Abuse & Neglect 20(8):767-782.

Fikree, F. F. and O. Pasha. 2004. “Role of Gender in Health Disparity: The South Asian Context.” Bmj 328(7443):823-826.

Flood, M. and B. Pease. 2009. “Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Violence Against Women.” Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 10(2):125-142.

Go, V. F., C. J. Sethulakshmi, M. E. Bentley, S. Sivaram, A. K. Srikrishnan, S. Solomon, and D. D. Celentano. 2003. “When HIV-Prevention Messages and Gender Norms Clash: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Women’s HIV Risk in Slums of Chennai, India.” AIDS and Behavior 7(3):263-272.

Goel, R. 2005. “Sita’s Trousseau Restorative Justice, Domestic Violence, and South Asian Culture.” Violence Against Women 11(5):639-665.

Hameed, S., S. Hlatshwayo, E. Tanner, M. Türker, and J. W. Yang. 2010. Human Trafficking in India: Dynamics, Current Efforts, and Intervention Opportunities for the Asia Foundation. Retrieved ( es/pdfs/StanfordHumanTraffickingIndiaFinalReport.pdf).

HAQ: Centre for Child Rights. 2010. Child Marriage in India: Achievements, Gaps and Challenges. Retrieved (http://

Hennink, M. and P. Simkhada. 2004. “Sex Trafficking in Nepal: Context and Process.” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 13(3):305-338.

Huda, S. 2006. “Sex Trafficking in South Asia.” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 94(3):374-381.

Indian Penal Code. Prohibition of Child Marriages Act. 2006. Retrieved ( pub_doc102.pdf).

Indian Penal Code—Immoral Traffic Prevention Act. 1956. Retrieved ( ltraffic.pdf).

International Center for Research on Women. 2011. Evolving Men: Men and Masculinities. Retrieved (http://www.icrw. org/publications/evolving-men).

Kara, S. 2009. Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. USA: Columbia University Press.

Khan, I. N.d. Child Trafficking in India—A Concern. White Paper.

Krishnan, S. 2005. “Do Structural Inequalities Contribute to Marital Violence? Ethnographic Evidence From Rural South India.” Violence Against Women 11(6):759-775.

Lanier, M. and S. Henry. 2004. Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Lewis, M. 1992. Shame: The Exposed Self. New York: The Free Press.

Lutya, T. M. and M. Lanier. 2012. An Integrated Theoretical Framework to Describe Human Trafficking of Young Women and Girls for Involuntary Prostitution. INTECH Open Access Publisher.

Men and Gender Equality Policy Project. 2011. Evolving Men: Initial Results From the International Men and Gender Equality Survey—IMAGES. Retrieved (http://www.icrw. org/sites/default/files/publications/Evolving-Men-Initial-Results-from-the-International-Men-and-Gender-Equality-Survey-IMAGES-1.pdf).

Nair, P. M. 2004. A Report on Trafficking of Women and Children in India: 2002-2003. Vol. 1. New Delhi: UNIFEM, ISS, NHRC.

Nair, P. M. and S. Sen. 2004. A Report on Trafficking of Women and Children in India: 2002–2003. Vol. I. New Delhi: UNIFEM, ISS, NHRC.

Okonofua, F. E., S. M. Ogbomwan, A. N. Alutu, O. Kufre, and A. Eghosa. 2004. “Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences of Sex Trafficking by Young Women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria.” Social Science & Medicine 59(6):1315-1327.

Ross, C. A. 1989. Multiple Personality Disorder: Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment. New York: Wiley.

Silverman, J. G., M. R. Decker, J. Gupta, A. Maheshwari, V. Patel, B. M. Willis, and A. Raj. 2007. “Experiences of Sex Trafficking Victims in Mumbai, India.” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 97(3):221-226.

Skeldon, R. 2000. “Trafficking: A Perspective From Asia.” International Migration 38(3):7-30.

Tangney, J. P., P. Wagner, C. Fletcher, and R. Gramzow. 1992. “Shamed Into Anger? The Relation of Shame and Guilt to Anger and Self-reported Aggression.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62(4):669-675.

The British Psychological Society. 2010. Code of Ethics and Conduct. Retrieved ( Public%20files/aa%20Standard%20Docs/inf94_code_web_ethics_conduct.pdf).

The U.S. State Department. 2009. Trafficking in Persons 2014 Report. Retrieved ( tries/2014/226740.htm).

UNDP. 2007. United Nations Development Report. Retrieved (

UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund). 2015. The State of the World’s Children 2015: Executive Summary. Retrieved ( lications/files/SOWC_2015_Summary_and_Tables.pdf).

——. 1989. United Nations Conventions on Child Rights, Article 34. Retrieved ( ments/Publicationpdfs/UNCRC_PRESS200910web.pdf).

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2015. Preliminary Findings, UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Maria Grazia Giammarinaro Visit to Malaysia. Retrieved ( Events/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15631&LangID=E).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2000. UN Palermo Protocol Article 3. Retrieved ( documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e.pdf).

——. 2009. Global Reports on Trafficking. Retrieved (https://

——. 2012. UNODC Report. Retrieved (https://www.unodc. org/documents/data-andanalysis/glotip/Trafficking_in_Persons_2012_web.pdf).

United Nations. 2015. United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved December 2015 ( millenniumgoals/).

Van der Hoven, A. and A. Maree. 2005. “Victimisation Risk Factors, Repeat Victimisation and Victim Profiling.” In Victimology in South Africa, edited by L. Davis and R. Snyman. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik.

Women and Child Development Ministry of India Annual Report. 2014. Retrieved ( files/AR2013-14.pdf).

About | Terms & Conditions | Issue | Privacy | Contact us
Copyright © 2001 - David Publishing Company All rights reserved,
3 Germay Dr., Unit 4 #4651, Wilmington DE 19804; Tel: 1-323-984-7526; Email: [email protected]