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1. Laboratory of Physiology, Physiopathology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Earth and Universe, University ABOU-BEKR BELKAÏD, Tlemcen 13000, Algeria 2. Society of Nutrition and Orthomolecular Medicine, SANMO, Algeria.


Antioxidants such as vitamin C and NADH can protect against pesticide adverse effects on immune function. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effects of vitamin C and NADH on the proliferative responses of human lymphocytes exposed to pesticides (Mancozeb fungicide and Metribuzin herbicide) and on Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. Their possible protective role on intracellular stress oxidative induced by pesticides was also investigated. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using differential centrifugation on a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured with mitogen concanavalin A (Con A), Mancozeb and Metribuzin (50 µM) in the presence or the absence of vitamin C (50 µM) or NADH (50 µM). Proliferation (MTT assay), IL-2, INFγ and IL-4 (Elisa kits), oxidative markers (intracellular superoxide anion, hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, GSH, catalase and SOD) were determined. The results showed that pesticides were immunosuppressive and decreased cytokine secretion with a shift away from to Th1 phenotype. These immunomodulatory properties were accompanied by an increase in lymphocyte intracellular oxidative stress. The presence of vitamin C or NADH, in the medium, exhibited protective effects in human lymphocytes by inhibiting pesticide—induced lymphocyte proliferation suppression, inflammatory status and oxidative stress generation. In conclusion, vitamin C and NADH can result in a safe and effective method to reduce pesticide adverse effects and help to restore immune function.


Antioxidants, cytokines, lymphocytes, Mancozeb, Metribuzin, NADH, oxidative stress, vitamin C.

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